Permanent, temporary and situational everyday barriers
There is an interesting infographic by Microsoft design that categorises disabilities in a much wider way as a series of personas.
It suggests that all of us can experience being disabled in some way, due to a permanent disability, temporary disability, or by a situation.
One example on the infographic is for hearing. It shows a permanent disability as being deaf, a temporary disability as an ear infection, or situationally a bartender in a noisy environment finding it hard to hear.
An example of universal design
Using this model offers a great way to demonstrate universal design in digital content from three perspectives.
Take for example a news video online that has captions.
Situational: You are on a loud train and have forgotten your headphones. You can still watch the news video and follow it by reading the video captions
Temporary: You have just landing from a plane journey, your ears temporarily feel strange and you can't hear properly. You can still watch the news video and follow it by reading the video captions
Permanent: You may be hard of hearing or deaf. You can still watch the news video and follow it by reading the video captions